Public Letter to Kofi Annan
June 1, 1998
Mr. Kofi Annan
Dear Secretary General,
On the occasion of the United Nations General Assembly Special Session on Drugs in New York on June 8-10, 1998, we seek your leadership in stimulating a frank and honest evaluation of global drug control efforts.
We are all deeply concerned about the threat that drugs pose to our children, our fellow citizens and our societies. There is no choice but to work together, both within our countries and across borders, to reduce the harms associated with drugs. The United Nations has a legitimate and important role to play in this regard -- but only if it is willing to ask and address tough questions about the success or failure of its efforts.
We believe that the global war on drugs is now causing more harm than drug abuse itself.
Every decade the United Nations adopts new international conventions, focused largely on criminalization and punishment, that restrict the ability of individual nations to devise effective solutions to local drug problems. Every year governments enact more punitive and costly drug control measures. Every day politicians endorse harsher new drug war strategies.
What is the result? U.N. agencies estimate the annual revenue generated by the illegal drug industry at $400 billion, or the equivalent of roughly eight per cent of total international trade. This industry has empowered organized criminals, corrupted governments at all levels, eroded internal security, stimulated violence, and distorted both economic markets and moral values. These are the consequences not of drug use per se, but of decades of failed and futile drug war policies.
In many parts of the world, drug war politics impede public health efforts to stem the spread of HIV, hepatitis and other infectious diseases. Human rights are violated, environmental assaults perpetrated and prisons inundated with hundreds of thousands of drug law violators. Scarce resources better expended on health, education and economic development are squandered on ever more expensive interdiction efforts. Realistic proposals to reduce drug-related crime, disease and death are abandoned in favor of rhetorical proposals to create drug-free societies.
Persisting in our current policies will only result in more drug abuse, more empowerment of drug markets and criminals, and more disease and suffering. Too often those who call for open debate, rigorous analysis of current policies, and serious consideration of alternatives are accused of "surrendering." But the true surrender is when fear and inertia combine to shut off debate, suppress critical analysis, and dismiss all alternatives to current policies. Mr. Secretary General, we appeal to you to initiate a truly open and honest dialogue regarding the future of global drug control policies - one in which fear, prejudice and punitive prohibitions yield to common sense, science, public health and human rights.
ARGENTINA Graciela Fernandez Meijide Member of Congress Irma Fidela Parentella Member of Congress Gustavo Hurtado Coordinación Ejecutiva del Programa de Drogadependencia de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires Carlos Juan Moneta Permanent Secretary of the Latin American Economic System (SELA) Adolfo Perez Esquivel Nobel Laureate (Peace) Graciela TouzU President, Intercambios AUSTRALIA Dick Adams House of Representatives, National Parliament Lyn Allison Senator, National Parliament Peter Baume Former Cabinet Minister; Chancellor, Australian National University Kevin Berry Olympic Gold Medallist Ald. Pru Bonham Deputy Lord Mayor, Hobart Ted Bramble Lawyer, Civil Libertarian Peter Brooks Dean, Health Sciences, University of Queensland John Brumby Leader of the Opposition, Victoria Ita Buttrose Journalist, author John Cain Former Premier, Victoria Dr. Greg B. Chesher Pharmacologist Assoc. Prof. Macdonald J. Christie Department of Pharmacology, University of Sydney Peter Cleeland Former Politician Barney Cooney Senator from Victoria Dr. Nick Crofts Public researcher Paul Deany Executive Officer, Asian Harm Reduction Network Mary Delahunty Journalist Ivor Deverson Lord Mayor, Melbourne Bob Douglas Professor of Epidemiology, Australian National University Alex Dr. Wodak Physician Phillip Dunn QC Barrister Paul Ellercamp Journalist Peter Fritz Founder and Managing Director, TCG Group of Companies Dr. Peter Graham General Practitioner Randolph Griffiths Former Sydney City Councillor Sir Rubert Hamer Former Premier, Victoria Susan Irvine Senior Lecturer, Public Health Harry Jenkins House of Representatives, National Parliament Michael Kirby, AC CMG President, International Commission of Jurists Joan Kirner Former Premier, Victoria John Konrads Olympic Gold Medallist Professor Jara Krivanek Technical University of Ostrava Czech Republic Richard Larkins Chairman, National Health and Medical Research Council Steve Leeder Dean, Medical Faculty, Sydney University Helen Lochhead Architect Frank Merlino Mayor, City of Whittlesea David Penington Former Vice Chancellor, Melbourne University Ron Penny Professor of Immunology, University of New South Wales Bronwyn Pike Executive Officer, Evatt Centre Phil Puna Attorney Dr. Adrian Reynolds Robert Richter QC Barrister Leo Schofield Director, Sydney Festival Richard Smallwood Former President, Royal Australasian College of Physicians Dr. Nadia Solowij National Drug & Alcohol Research Centre, University of NSW John Spatchurst Principal, Spatchurst Design Associates Bill Stronach Australian Drug Foundation Kelvin Templeton Sportsman and Sports Administrator Charles Watson Dean Health Sciences Curtin University David White Former Politician Michael Willesee TV Broadcaster Charles Williams Dean of Law, Monash University Neville Wran Former Premier, New South Wales BELGIUM Yves Cartuyvels Professor of Penal Law, University of Saint-Louis, Brussels Stanley Crossick Chairman, European Policy Centre Vincent Decroly Member of Parliament, Brussels Christine Guillain Attorney, Researcher, School of the Criminological Sciences, Free University of Brussels Dan Kaminski School of Criminology, Catholic University of Louvain-la-Neuve Philippe Mary Professor of Criminology, Vice-President, School of Crimininological Sciences, Free University of Brussels Patrick Moriau University of Brussels Member of Parliament, Mayor of Chapelle-lez-Herlaimont Ilya Prigogyne Emeritus professor physical chemistry, Free University of Brussels; Nobel Laureate (Chemistry, 1977) Olivier Ralet Former head, PEDDRO drug prevention project, UNESCO/European Union Micheline Roelandt Psychiatrist Sonja Snacken Ph.D., Professor of Criminology and Sociology of Law, Free University of Brussels Isabelle Stengers Philosopher, Free University of Brussels; Winner "Grand Prix de Philosophie de L'Académie Française Lode Van Outrive Emeritus Professor of Criminology, Leuven University; Former Member of the European Parliament BOLIVIA Antonio Aranibar Quiroga Former Foreign Minister Edgar Camacho Omiste Former Ambassador to the OAS Roger Cortez-Hurtado Former Member of Congress Juan del Granado Member of Congress Alfonso Ferrufino Valderrama Former Vice-President of the Bolivian House of Representatives Horst Grebe Lopez Former Cabinet Minister Lidya Gueiler Tejada Former President of Bolivia Roberto Moscoso Valderrama Member of Congress Ricardo Paz Ballivian Former Member of Congress Carlos Julio Quiroga Blanco Member of Congress Guillermo Richter A. Former Senator Gonzalo Ruiz Member of Congress Manuel Suarez Avila Member of Congress Felix Vasquez Mamani Member of Congress BRAZIL Ana Magnólia Bezerrá Mendés Assistant Professor, University of Brasilia Pedro Casaldaliga Catholic Bishop of São Felix do Araquaia Luiz Inacio Lula Da Silva Presidential Candidate, Brazil; Honorary President of the Workers Party Fabio Mesquita Researcher, University of São Paulo, Brasil; Executive Director of the Latin American Harm Reduction Network CANADA Glenn A. Gilmour Lawyer, Ottawa James A. Wakeford AIDS Activist, Toronto Frank Addario Criminal Lawyer Chris Axworthy Member of Parliament, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan Marie-Andrée Bertrand Professor Emeritus of Criminology, University of Montreal; President, International Antiprohibitionist League, Montreal, Quebec Barry L. Beyerstein, Ph.D. Brain Behavior Laboratory, Simon Fraser University Barry L. Beyerstein, PhD Brain Behavior Laboratory, Department of Psychology, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, B.C. Neil Boyd Professor, School of Criminology, Simon Fraser University, Vancouver J.A. Browne Parent, Burlington, Ontario C. Michael Bryan Formerly Special Assistant, Commission of Inquiry into the Non-Mecial Use of Drugs (Le Dain Commission); Senior Policy Analyst (Narcotic Control Policy), Health Protection Branch, Health Canada Paul Burstein Criminal Lawyer Sharon Carstairs Senator, former Chair, Standing Senate Committee on Legal and Constitutional Affairs, Sente of Canada John W. Conroy Barrister & Solicitor, Mission , B.C. Paul Copeland Lawyer; Columnist on Drug Law, Ontario Criminal Lawyers' Association Newsletter, Toronto Laura Cowan, RN Executive Director of Street Health, Toronto, Ontario Libby Davies Member of Parliament, Vancouver-East Jonathan Dawe Barrister, Toronto, Ontario Denise De Pape Bev Desjarlais Member of Parliament, Manitoba Marion Dewar HAIA Oxfam Canada, Ottawa Jari Dvorek Medical Marijuana Activist, Toronto Richard Elliott President, Canadian HIV/AIDS Legal Network, Toronto Patricia G. Erickson, PhD Senior Scientist, Addiction Research Foundation, Division of the Addiction and Mental Health Services Corporation, Professor of Sociology, University of Toronto Michael Farrance Addictions Coordinator, City of Toronto Hostels Division, Toronto Yvon Godin Member of Parliament, Bathhurst, NB Irene Goldstone B.C. Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS, Vancouver Dr. Richard Gould Community Medicine Specialist, Toronto Edward L. Greenspan, QC Senior Partner, Greenspan, Nenein & White, Toronto Catherine Hankins Public Health Epidemiologist, Chair of the Canadian Task Force on HIV and Injection Drug Use, Montreal David Harvey Oakville, Ontario Shaun Hopkins Manager, The Works Andrew J. Rapoch Former President, National Organization for the Reform of the Marijuana Laws (NORML), Ottawa, Ontario Jane Jacobs Author Ralf Jorgens Executive Director, Canadian HIV/AIDS, Legal Network, Montreal J. Robertt. Kellerman Law Union of Ontario, Steering Committee Perry Kendall Former president, Addiction Research Foundation, Victoria Rick Laliberte Member of Parliament, Churchill River, Beauval, Saskatchewan Pierre Landreville Professer of Criminology, University of Montreal Wendy Lill Member of Parliament, Dartmouth Dennis Long President, Ontario Federation of Community Addictions and Mental Health Programs; Executive Director, Breakaway Substance Abuse Treatment Centre, Toronto, Ontario Paul MacPhee Co-Chair AIDS Action Now!, Toronto, Ontario Peter Mancini Member or Parliament Ron Mann Filmmaker, Toronto Patrick Martin Member of Parliament, Winnipeg, Manitoba Vishnu Mathur T.V. Producer, Toronto Alexa McDonough Member of Parliament, Federal Leader of New Democratic Party, Ottawa, Canada Ruth Morris Education Director, Toronto Lorne Nystrom Member of Parliament, N.D.P., Qu'Appelle, Regina, Saskatchewan Eugene Oscapella Lawyer, former Chair, Law Reform Commission of Canada Drug Policy George Panagpa F.U.M Group - Parkdale Comunity Health Center John C. Polanyi Nobel Laureate (Chemistry, 1986), Toronto, Ontario Gil Puder Police Officer, Abbotsford, BC Diane Riley, PhD International Harm Reduction Association, Toronto Svend Robinson Member of Parliament, New Democratic Party of Canada, Burnaby-Douglas Greg Robinson Co-Chair AIDS Action Now!, Toronto Dr. David Roy Director, Centre for Bioethics, Clinical Research Institute of Montreal Clayton Ruby Lawyer, Toronto Gordon S. Earle Member of Parliament, Halifax, Nova Scotia Dr. John S. Millar Provincial Health Officer, Ministry of Health and Ministry Responsible for Seniors, Victoria, British Columbia Pat Sanagan Substance Abuse Prevention Consultant Jan Skirrow Consultant; Former CEO Alberta Alcohol & Drug Abuse Commission; Deputy Minister of Community and Occupational Health, Alberta; Founding CEO Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse, Duncan, BC Robert St-Pierre HIV Program Coordinator, Canadian Hemophilia Society, Montreal Terence Stewart Canadian Aids Society, Ottawa Peter Stoffer Member of Parliament - New Democratic Party of Canada Neev Tapiero Medical Cannabis Activist and Dispenser, Toronto Jeannette Tossounian MUM (Marijuana Used for Medicine), Kitchener, Ontario Elaine Vautour Counsellor, Toronto, Ontario Judy Wasylycia-Leis Member of Parliament, Winnipeg Dr. Jonathan Wouk Ottawa, Ontario CHILE Ariel Dorfman Writer CHINA Spencer So Community Drug Advisory Council COLOMBIA Arturo Alape Writer Gustavo Alvarez Gardeazabal Governor, Department of Valle de Cauca Belisario Betancur Former President Juan Manuel Santos President, Fundacion Buen Gobierno Alvaro Mutis Writer Augusto Ramirez Ocampo Former Foreign Minister; National Recociliation Commission COSTA RICA Oscar Arias Nobel Laureate (Peace); Former President of Costa Rica DENMARK Hans Henrik Brydensholt High Court Judge, Former Director of the Danish Prison and Probation Service, Former Head of Section in the Danish Ministry of Justice Bjørn Elmquist Former Member of Parliament and Chairman of Parliamentary Permanent Committee on Justice Jørgen Jepsen Centre of Alcohol & Drug Research, University of Aarhus Erik Merlung District Attorney, Copenhagen Erling Olsen Former Minister of Justice, Former Chairman of the Danish Parliament, Former Professor of Economics at the University of Copenhagen Villy Søvndal Member of Parliament, Chairman of the Permanent Parliamentary Committee on Social Affairs ECUADOR Washington Herrera Former Presidential Minister FINLAND Inkeri Anttila Professor of Penal Law, University of Helsinki; Former Minister of Justice Kauko Aromaa Research Director, National Research Institute of Legal Policy Pekka Koskinen Professor of Penal Law, University of Helsinki Klaus Maekelae Research Director, Finnish Foundation for Alcohol Studies Hannu Takala Executive Secretary, National Council for Crime Prevention Patrik Tornudd Former Director of National Research Institute of Legal Policy FRANCE Claude Aiguevive, MD Vice President, Médecins du Monde Josefina Alvarez Research Group on Criminal Policy, University of Montpellier I Bruno Aubusson de Cavarlay Research Engineer, Guyancourt Dr. Elisbeth Avril Médecins du Monde Michèle Barzach Former Minister of Health Georges Berthoin International Honarary Chairman of the European Movement, Paris France Mario Bettati Professor of International Law, Paris University Francis Caballero Professor of Law, Paris University Jean-Pierre Changeux Professor of Molecular Neurobiology, Pasteur Institute and College de France Anne Coppel Sociologist Claude Faugeron Research Director, Co-Director, CNRS Drug Research Group, Paris Andre Glucksman Philosopher Marek Halter Writer Michel Kazatchkine Professor of Immunology, Paris University Catherine Lalumiere MPE (Member of the European Parliament) Jacques Lebas, MD President, Institut de l'Humanitaire, Paris Bertrand Lebeau Head Centre Parmentier Paris Thierry Levy Attorney William Lowenstein, MD Head, Montecristo Center, Paris Jacky Mamou President, Médecins de Monde Arnaud Marty Lavauzelle President, AIDES Monique Nahas Professor, University of Paris VIII GERMANY Lorenz Böllinger Professor of Law, University of Bremen Daniel Cohn-Bendit Member, European Parliament; Commission for Civil Rights and Internal Affairs Barbara Duden Professor of Historical Sociology, Hannover, Germany Peter Frerichs Vice President, Frankfurt Police Prof. Dr. Monika Frommel Criminal Law, School of Criminology, University of Kiel Günter Grass Writer Prof. Dr. Axel Grönemeyer Center for Social Problems, Public Health and Social Policy, University of Bielefeld Johannes Gross Journalist, Author, Talk show host, former editor "Capital" Prof. Dr. Bernhard Haffke Criminal Law, University of Passau Ivan Illich Philosopher Dr. Hans Harald Koerner Public Prosecutor, Frankfurt Leutheuser-Schnarrenberger Former German Federal Minister of Justice, drug political speaker, FDP Party Sabine Leutheusser-Schnarrenberger Former German Federal Minister of Justice Heide Moser Minister of Employment and Social Affairs, State of Schleswig-Holstein Prof. Dr. Cornelius Nestler University of Köln Margarethe Nimsch Former Minister for Health, State of Hessen, Germany Prof. Dr. Cornelius Prittwitz Criminal Law, University of Rostock Prof. Dr. Stephan Quensel Professor of Sociology, University of Bremen Prof. Dr. Sebastian Scheerer Aufbau- und Kontaktstudium Kriminologie, University of Hamburg Prof. Dr. Konrad Schily President, University of Witten-Herdecke Hartmut Schneider District Court Judge, Lübeck Dierk-Henning Schnitzler Police President, City of Bonn, Christian Democrate GREECE Alexis Grivas Foreign Correspondent El Sol de Mexico Daily Nicos Mouzelis Professor of Sociology, London School of Economics, Athens Nocis Papadakis Press Counsellor, Greek Embassy in London George Papandreou Alternate Foreign Minister of Greece Michaelis Papayannakis Member European Parliament Anthony D. Papayannides Journalist, Publisher James Pettifer Visiting Professor, Institute of Balkan Studies, University of Thessaloniki Voula Tsinorema Professor of Philosophy, University of Ioannina Georgos Votsis Political Editor, Eleftherotypia Newpaper, Athens GUATEMALA Arnaldo Ortiz Moscoso Former President of the Bar Association, Guatemala HUNGARY Jánes Kis Philosopher INDIA Jimmy Dorabjee Program Manager, Society for Serving the Urban Poor, New Delhi IRELAND Ivana Bacik Reid Professor of Criminal Law, Trinity College, Dublin Vincent Browne Journalist; Lawyer Tim Murphy Lecturer in Law, University College, Cork Daire O'Brien Editor, Himself Magazine Olaf Paul Tyaransen Writer ISRAEL Yossi Beilin Former Minister, Member of Knesset, Tel Aviv Haim Cohn Former Deputy President of the Israel Supreme Court, Professor of Penal Philosophy Prof. Ruth Gavison Haim Cohn Professor of Human Rights, Hebrew University; President of the Israel Civil Rights Association; Member, International Commission of Jurists Menachem Horovitz Former Director of Correctional Services, Department of Welfare and Labour; Research and Teaching Associate, Institute of Criminology, Hebrew University Leslie Sebba, JD Associate Professor, Law Faculty, Hebrew University; former Chairperson of the Criminology Council. ITALY Vittorio Agnoletto President of the Italian League Against AIDS Monica Bettoni-Brandani Undersecretary of State for Health Giovanni Bollea Professor of Neuropsychiatry, University of Rome Emma Bonino European Commissioner for Humanitarian Affairs Nicoletta Braschi Actress Francesco Carella President Health Commission of the Senate Don Luigi Ciotti President, Gruppo Abele, Torino Dario Fo Nobel Laureate (Literature 1997) Luigi Manconi Senator, President of the Green Party, Rome Livio Pepino President, Magistratura Democratica Giuliano Pisapia President, Justice Commission, Italian Parliament, Rome Franca Rame Actress Stefano Rodota President, Authority for Privacy Ersilia Salvato Vice-President, Senate, Rome Grazia Zuffa President, Forum Droghe; Former Member of Parliament, Florence JAMAICA Colonel (R) Trevor N.N. MacMillan, C.D.J.P. Former Commissioner of Police, Jamaica Constabulary Force; Former Director, Revenue Protection Division, Ministry of Finance LUXEMBOURG Renée Wagner Member of Parliament, Luxemburg; President of the Green Party; Member, Special Parliamentary Commssion on Drugs MALAYSIA Susan Chong Malaysian AIDS Council Hisham Hussein Malaysian AIDS Council G. Chacko Vadaketh Chair, Law and Ethics Committee, Malaysian AIDS Council; Advocate and Solicitor, Kuala Lumpur MEXICO Mariclare Acosta President of the Mexican Comission for the Defense and Promotion of Human Rights (CMDPDH) Homero Aridjis President, International Organization of Literary Writers & Editors Carlos Heredia Zubieta Member of Congress Gilberto Lopez y Rivas Member of Congress Jesus Silva Herzog Former Mexican Ambassador to the United States NETHERLANDS Andreas van Agt Former Prime Minister of the Netherlands; Former Minister of Justice; Former Ambassador of the European Union to the United States Janhuib Blans Head of Jellinek Prevention; Assistant Professor of Parent Education and Prevention, University of Amsterdam Tim Boekhout van Solinge Centre for Drug Research, University of Amsterdam Frank Bovenkerk Professor of criminology, University of Utrecht Giel van Brussel MPH Master Public Health, Amsterdam Dr. Peter D.A. Cohen Centre for Drug Research, University of Amsterdam Hedy d'Ancona Former Dutch Minister of Welfare, Health, and Culture; Member of the European Parliament Marcel van Dam Publicist, Former Minister of Housing and Physical Planning, Putten, Netherlands Dr. Peter A. de Groot Psychiatrist, Harderwijk Jan F. Glastra van Loon Professor, Senator, Former State Secretary of Justice John Griffiths Professor of Sociology of Law, University of Groningen Sylvia van 't Hul Public Prosecutor, Rotterdam Louk Hulsman Emeritus professor of Penal Law and Criminology, Erasmus University, Rotterdam; Former President, European Commission for Criminal Problems, Coucil of Europe Constantijn Kelk, Ph.D. Professor, Director, Willem Pompe Institute for Criminal Sciences, Utrecht University Free le Poole Member of the First Chamber of Parliament (Senate), Vice-President, District Court, Assen Ed Leuw Researcher at the Ministry of Justice, The Hague Freek Polak Psychiatrist, Amsterdam Felix Rottenberg Amsterdam Frits C.F. Rüter Professor of Criminal Law, University of Amsterdam E.H. Schuyer Senator; Chairman of Democrats (D66), Senate Jan G. van der Tas Former Netherlands Ambassador to Germany Ed. van Thijn Former Mayor of Amsterdam; Professor, University of Amsterdam J.M. vander Vaart Judge, District Court of Amsterdam Leon Wever Board Member, Symbion (Addiction Care Rotterdam Region, Rijnmond); Former Deputy Chief of Addiction Care, Ministry of Health Dr. Pieter Winsemius Former Netherlands Minister of Housing, Physical Planning and Environment Policy NEW ZEALAND Tim Barnett Member of Parliament, New Zealand NICARAGUA Violeta Barrios de Chamorro Former President of Nicaragua Miguel d'Escoto Brockman Former Foreign Minister; Fundeci Nicaraguan Foundation for Comprehensive Community Development Xabier Gorostiaga Former Rector, University of Central America NORWAY Johannes Andenaes Professor of Penal Law; Former Rector, University of Oslo; Former Chairman, Permanent Penal Committee of Norway Anders Bratholm Professor of Penal Law, University of Oslo Nils Christie Professor of Criminology, University of Oslo, Former director of Scandinavian Board of Criminology Gunnar Garbo Ambassador; Former Member of Parliament Ragnar Hauge Professor, Former Director, State Institute of Alcohol and Drug Research Cecilie Hoigaard Professor of Criminology, University of Oslo, Former Director, Scandinavian Board of Criminology Thomas Mathiesen Professor of Sociology of Law, University of Oslo Sturla Nordlund Director, Norwegian State Institute of Alcohol and Drug Research PERU Javier Alva Orlandini Member of Congress Rolando Ames Former Senator Humberto Campodonico Economist, University Professor (San Marcos) Arturo Castillo Chirinos Member of Congress Julio Cotler Director, Institute of Peruvian Studies Javier Diez Canseco Member of Congress Fernando Eguren Sociologist, Director of Quarterly Debate Agrario Antero Flores Araoz Member of Congress Lourdes Flores Nano Member of Congress Ernesto Gamarra Olivares Member of Congress Diego Garcia-Sayan Executive Director, Andean Commission of Jurists Alfonso Grados Bertorini Member of Congress, Peru Gustavo Gutierrez Theologian Jutta Krause German Technical Development Agency Manuel Lajo Member of Congress Guido Lombardi Anchor, Red Global TV Javier Perez de Cuellar Former Secretary General of the United Nations Federico Salazar Anchor, America TV Alejandro Santa Maria Member of Congress Annel Townsend Diez Canseco Member of Congress Jose Ugaz University Professor Allan Wagner Former Minister of Foreign Affairs POLAND Marek Balicki Psychiatrist, Former Deputy, Ministry of Health Mikolaj Kozakiewicz Former Speaker of Parliament (1989-1991); Vice-President of IPPFV Krzysztof Krajewski Professor, School of Criminology, University of Jagiellonski Marek Nowicki President, Helsinki Foundation for Human Rights; Member, Helsinki Commitee for Human Rights Danuta Przywara Secretary to the Board, Helsinki Foundation for Human Rights Andrzej Rzeplinski Professor of Criminology, University of Warsaw; Deputy President, Helsinki Foundation for Human Rights Janusz Sieroslawski Sociologist, Pompidou Group PORTUGAL Daniel Sampaio, MD, Ph.D. Professor of Psychiatry, University of Lisbon SOUTH AFRICA Malcolm Damon Public Policy Liason Officer, South African Council of Churches Neville Gabriel, C.S.S.R. SACBC Parliamentary Office Helen Suzman Former Opposition Member of Parliament, Johannesburg SPAIN Jose Antonio Alonso Suarez Judge. Juzgado de lo Penal n° 14 de Madrid Gregorio Alvarez Alvarez Judge. Juzgado de 1ª instancia e instrucción n° 2 de Salamanca Francisco Javier Alvarez Garcia Law Professor, Universidad de Cantabria Perfecto Andrés Ibañez Judge; Presidente de la Secc. 15. Audiencia provincial de Madrid Heriberto Asencio Castillan Judge. Audiencia provincial de Sevilla Adela Asua Batarrita Law Professor, Universidad de San Sebastiÿn Ignacio Berdugo Goméz De La Torre Dean and Law Professor, Universidad de Salamanca Emilio Berlanga Ribelles Judge. Tribunal Superior de Justicia de Cataluña Ricardo Bodas Martin Judge. Juzgado de lo Social n° 30 de Madrid Javier Boix Reig Law Professor - Universidad de Valencia Antonio Caballero Writer and journalist Francisco Candil Jimenez Law Professor, Universidad de Sevilla Rocio Cantarero Bandres Law Professor, Universidad de la Rioja Juan Carlos Carbonell Mateu Dean and Law Professor, Universidad de Valencia Manuela Carmena Castrillo Judge. Vocal del Consejo General del Poder judicial Miguel Carmona Ruano Judge, Presidente de la Audiencia provincial de Sevilla Jose Cid Moline Law Professor, Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona Candido Conde Pumpido Judge. Sala 2ª del Tribunal Supremo Antonio Contardo Industrialist Antonio Cuerda Riezu Law Professor, Universidad de LeónLetrado del Tribunal Constitucional Jose Luis De La Cuesta Arzamendi Vice Dean and Law Professor Universidad del País Vasco Juan Tomas De Salas Lawyer and Journalist- Founder of the Grupo16, Publisher and Editor of HisToria16, Editor of El Gato Encerrrado Jose Luis Díez Ripollés Law Professor, Universidad de MÿlagaCoordinador del Grupo de Estudios de Política Criminal Aurora Elosegui Sotos Judge.Juzgado de 1ª Instancia n° 6 de San Sebastiÿn Antonio Escohotado Writer Professor of the Universidad a Distancia, Author of the best seller "Historia de las Drogas" Jesus Fernandez Entralgo Judge. Secc. 17. Audiencia provincial de Madrid Maria Dolores Fernandez Rodriguez Law Professor, Universidad de Murcia Juan Carlos Ferre Olivé Law Professor, Universidad de Huelva Rafael Fluiters Casado Judge. Juzgado de 1ª instancia e instrucción n° 1 de Alcalÿ de Henares. Madrid Virginia Garcia Alarcon Judge. Juzgado de lo Social n° 22 de Madrid Mercedes García Arán Law Professor, Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona.Coordinadora del Grupo de Estudios de Política Criminal Antonio Gil Merino Judge, Presidente de la Secc. 7. Audiencia provincial de Sevilla Luis Gonzalez Guitián Law Professor, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela Luis Gracia Martin Law Professor, Universidad de Zaragoza Gumersindo Guinarte Cabada Law Professor, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela Hernan Hormazabal Malaree Law Professor, Universidad de Gerona Maria F Ibañez Solaz Judge. Juzgado de Instrucción n° 16 de Valencia Carmen Lamarca Perez Law Professor, Universidad Carlos III Gerardo Landrove Diaz Law Professor, Universidad de Murcia Elena Larrauri Pijoan Law Professor, Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona Patricia Laurenzo Copello Law Professor, Universidad de Mÿlaga Jose Manuel Lorenzo Salgado Law Professor, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela Borja Mapelli Caffarena Law Professor, Universidad de Sevilla Maria Luisa Maqueda Abreu Law Professor, Universidad de Almería Antonio Martin Pallin Judge. Sala 2ª del Tribunal Supremo Javier Martinez Lazaro Judge. Juzgado de lo Penal n° 4 de Madrid Fermin Morales Prats Law Professor, Universidad Autónoma de Barcelona Manuel Moran Gonzalez Judge. Audiencia Provincial de Salamanca Julian Manuel Moreno Retamino Judge. Tribunal Superior de Justicia, Sala Cont.-Adm. de Sevilla Claudio Movilla Alvarez Judge. Sala de lo Contencioso del Tribunal Supremo Francisco Muñoz Conde Law Professor, Universidad de Sevilla Enrique Orts Berenguer Law Professor, Universidad de Valencia Felix Pantoja Judge, Fiscal de Menores de Madrid Jose Miguel De Paul Velasco Judge. Audiencia Provincial de Sevilla Jose Joaquin Perez-Beneyto Abad Judge.Juzgado de lo Social n° 4 de Sevilla Mario Pestana Perez Judge. Juzgado de 1ª Ins. e Instrucción n° 1 de Leganés. Madrid.Coordinador del Grupo de Estudios de Política Criminal Miguel Polaino Navarrete Law Professor, Universidad de Sevilla Luis Rodriguez Ramos Catedrático de Derecho Penal de la Universidad Complutense de Madrid Horacio Roldÿn Barbero Law Professor, Universidad de Córdoba Juan Jose Romeo Laguna Judge. Audiencia provincial, Sección VIII de Sevilla Bernardo Del Rosal Blasco Law Professor, Universidad de Alicante Ramon Saez Valcarcel Judge. Vocal del Consejo General del Poder judicial Fernando Savater Writer / Philosopher Jose R. Serrano-Piedecasas Law Professor, Universidad de Salamanca Ascension Sole Puig Judge.Juzgado de lo Social n° 28 de Barcelona Josep Maria Tamarit Sumalla Law Professor, Universidad de Lérida Juan Terradillos Basoco Law Professor, Universidad de Cÿdiz Jose Manuel Valle Muñiz Law Professor, Universidad de Lérida Ramiro Ventura Faci Judge.Juzgado de Instrucción n° 18 de Madrid Luis Yañez-Barnuevo Member of Parliament Jose Miguel Zugaldia Espinar Dean, and Law Professor, Universidad de Granada SWEDEN Anders Bergmark Professor of social work, Stockholm University Peter Curman Former Chairman, Swedish Writer's Union Ted Goldberg Associate Professor of social work, Stockholm University Olof Lagercrantz Former Editor-In-Chief, Dagens Nyheter Leif Lenke Associate Professor of criminology, Stockholm University Claes Örtendahl Former Director General, Board of Health and Welfare, Sweden Ingegmar Rexed Judge,Svea Court of Appeal, Stockholm Jerzy Sarnecki Professor of criminology, Stockholm University Sune Sunesson Professor of social work, Lund University Henrik Tham Professor of criminology, Stockholm University Per Ole Träskman Professor of penal law, Lund University, Sweden Hanns von Hofer Professor of criminology, Stockholm University SWITZERLAND Peter Albrecht Judge, Court of Bâle-Ville; Professor, University of Bâle Pascal Bernheim Second Manager, Radio Suisse Romande - La Première Dr. Barbara Broers Division of Substance Abuse, Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital of Geneva Christian Brunier Member of Parliament, Geneva; President, Geneva Socialist Party Pierre Philippe Cadert Journalist, Radio Suisse Romande Maria Luisa Cesoni Attorney, Research Fellow, Faculty of Law, University of Geneva Jacqueline Cogne Member of Parliament, Geneva Herve Dessimoz Congressman, Geneva Parliament Dr Dominique Hausser, MD, MSc Member of Parliament, Geneva; Co-president, Drug Policy Commission, Socialist Party Bohdan D. Hawrylyshyn Chairman, International Renaissance Foundation Michel Heiniger Film Director; Reporter, Swiss TV - Geneva Dr. Annie Mino MD Head, Division of Substance, Department of Psychiatry, University Hospital, Geneva Christian Nils Robert Professor, School of Law, Geneva; CPT Expert (Council of Europe) Albert Rodrik Member of Parliament, Geneva Francoise Schenk-Gottret Member of Parliament, Geneva UNITED STATES Morton Abramowitz International Crisis Group Bruce Ackerman Sterling Professor of Law, Yale University Tammy Baldwin Wisconsin State Representative, Candidate for Congress Randy E. Barnett Austin B.Fletcher Professor, Boston University School of Law Jeremiah A Barondess MD President, New York Academy of Medicine Jim Baumohl Bryn Mawr College David H. Bayley Dean, School of Criminal Justice State University of New York at Albany Peter Beilenson Baltimore City Health Commissioner Ivan T. Berend Professor, University of California, Los Angeles Robert L. Bernstein Founding Chair, Human Rights Watch Jagdish Bhagwati Professor of Economics, Columbia University Nicolaus Bloembergen Nobel Laureate (Physics 1981) Leon Botstein President, Bard College John Bound Professor of Economics, University of Michigan Willie Brown Mayor of San Francisco Richard Burt Senior Advisor, Center for Strategic and International Studies, Washington DC Calvin Butts III Pastor, Abyssinian Baptist Church, New York, NY Geoffrey Canada Rheedlen Center for Children & Families, Inc. William J Chambliss Professor, George Washington University Allan Clear Executive Director, Harm Reduction Coalition Harvey Cox Professor of Divinity, Harvard University Alan Cranston Former U.S. Senator Walter Cronkite Author, Broadcast Journalist John Curtin Federal Judge, Buffalo, NY Lloyd N. Cutler Lawyer, Wilmer, Cutler & Pickering; Former Counsel to the President, 1979-1981, 1994 Richard Dennis President, Dennis Trading Group Adrian W. DeWind Partner, Paul, Weiss, Rifkind, Wharton and Garrison Jameson Doig Professor of Politics and Public Affairs, Princeton University Vincent Dole, MD Professor Emeritus, Rockefeller University Elizabeth K. Dollard Professor of Law, Medicine & Psychiatry at NYU Law School Ann Druyan Federation of American Scientists Steven Duke Professor, Yale Law School Troy Duster Professor of Sociology, University of California, Berkeley Jonathan Eaton Chairman, Department of Economics, Boston University Thomas Eissenberg, Ph.D. Assistant Professor, Virginia Commonwealth University Joycelyn Elders Former U.S. Surgeon General Ahmet Ertegun Executive Chairman, Atlantic Records Jonathan F. Fanton President, New School University John Ferejohn Professor of Political Science, Stanford, Senior Fellow Hoover Institution, Stanford University Herman Feshbach Institute Professor Emeritus, MIT Robert Field Chairman, Common Sense for Drug Policy Hamilton Fish President, Public Concern Foundation Val L. Fitch Professor Emeritus of Physics, Princeton University Rev. Floyd Flake Cathedral of the Allen AME Church, Pastor Kathleen M. Foley Project on Death in America Milton Friedman Senior Research Fellow, Hoover Insitution, Stanford University Douglas Gale Professor of Economics, New York University H. Jack Geiger, MD Professor of Community Medicine, City University of New York Medical School Adrienne Germain President, International Women's Health Coalition Alfred G. Gilman, MD, PhD Regental Professor and Chairman, Department of Pharmacology, University of Texas Ira Glasser Executive Director, The American Civil Liberties Union Ellen Goldberg President, Santa Fe Institute Marvin L. Goldberger Dean, Division of Natural Sciences, University of California, San Diego Stephen Jay Gould Harvard University Mike Gray Author, "Drug Crazy" Paul Greengard Vincent Astor Professor of Neuroscience, Chief of the Laboratory of Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience, Rockefeller University Lester Grinspoon Harvard Medical School Lani Guinier Professor of Law, University of Pennsylvania Terrence Hallinan District Attorney of San Francisco Morton H. Halperin Former Department of Defense and National Security Council Official Susan Hammer Mayor of San Jose Vernon Henderson Professor of Economics, Brown University Arnold Hiatt Stride Rite Foundation H.J. Hoffer, PhD Dean Emeritus, Katz Graduate School of Business, University of Pittsburgh Sher Horosko Executive Director, Drug Policy Foundation Douglas Husak Professor of Philosophy, Rutgers University Alex Inkeles Sociologist, Senior Fellow Emeritus Hoover Institution, Stanford University Sut Jhally Professor of Communication, University of Massachusetts - Amherst Carole Joffe Professor of Sociology at University of California Howard Josepher, CSW Executive Director, Exponents Inc. John Kane Federal Judge, Denver, CO Nicholas Katzenbach Former Attorney General Donald Kennedy President Emeritus Stanford University; Professor Bological Services, Stanford Rufus King, Sr. Daniel Klein Department of Economics, Santa Clara University Whitman Knapp Senior District Judge, Southern District of New York Jeanne E. Kohl Senator, Washington State Melvyn Krauss Economist, Senior Fellow Hoover Institution, Stanford University Mike Lawlor Chair Judiciary Committee, Connecticut House of Representatives Joshua Lederberg Professor, Rockefeller University Phillip R. Lee Professor Emeritus, School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco David Lenson Professor of Comparative Literature, University of Massachusetts, Amherst Titus Levi Assistant Professor, University of Southern California Robin J. Lewis Associate Dean, School of International Affairs, Columbia University Peter Lewis Chairman, CEO, The Progressive Corporation Walter Loewenstern, Jr., PhD Co-Founder ROLM Corporation, Overseer Hoover Institution, Stanford University, President Vail Valley Institute Robert E. Lucas, Jr. Department of Economics, University of Chicago Peter Lurie University of Michigan Paul Martin L. Nobel Laureate (Physics) Gary T. Marx Professor Emeritus, M.I.T.; Professor of Sociology, University of Colorado Joseph McNamara Former Police Chief of Kansas City and San Jose, Research Fellow Hoover Institution Donal E. J. McNamara Former President American Society of Criminology Miguel Mendez Professor of Law, Stanford University Matthew Meselson Harvard University Ruth Messenger Former Manhattan Borough President Robert B. Millman Soul P. Steinberg Distinguished Professor of Psychiatry and Public Health, Cornell University Medical College Jeff Miron Professor of Economics, Boston University Toby Moffett Former U.S. Congressman; Vice President, Monsanto Company, Washington, DC Howard Moody Reverend Emeritus, Judson Memorial Church, New York, NY Thomas Moore Economist, Senior Fellow, Hoover Institution, Stanford University Paul Moore, Jr. Bishop (Retired), Episcopal Church of New York Dr. John P. Morgan Professor of Pharmacology, City University of New York Medical School Andrew P. Morriss Associate Professor of Law & Associate Professor of Economics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio Patrick Murphy Former Police Commissioner of New York City Charles Murray American Enterprise Institute Ethan Nadelmann, PhD Director, The Lindesmith Center Robert Newman Continuum Health Partners Roger Noll Professor of Economics, Director of Public Policy Program, Stanford University Richard L. Ottinger Former Congressman Denise Paone, PhD Assistant Director of Research, Asisstant Professor, Beth Israel Medical Center Claiborne Pell Former U.S. Senator Joan Petersilia Professor of Criminology, University of California, Irvine Gerard Piel Former Editor/Publisher, Scientific American Senator Anne Rand Assistant Majority Leader, Maine Senate David Rasmussen Professor of Economics, Florida State University William Ratliff Political Scientist, Senior Research Fellow Hoover Institution, Stanford University Craig Reinarman Professor of Sociology, Univeristy of California, Santa Cruz Timothy N. Robertson Legislator, New Hampshire Dean E. Robinson Assistant Professor, University of Massachusetts - Amherst G. Alan Robison Distinguished Professor of Pharmacology, University of Texas, Houston Laurance Rockefeller Ruth Rosen Professor of History at the U. of California, Davis Marsha Rosenbaum Director The Lindesmith Center, San Francisco office Allan Rosenfield Dean, Columbia School of Public Health Vernon W. Ruttan Regents Professor, University of Minnesota Oscar Schachter Professor Emeritus of International Law and Diplomacy, Columbia University Kurt Schmoke Mayor of Baltimore Sidney H. Schnoll, M.D., Ph.D. Division of Substance Abuse Medicine, Medical College of Virginia Carl E. Schorske Professor of History, Princeton University Herman Schwartz Professor of Law, American University George Shultz Former Secretary of State, Dinstinguished Fellow, Hoover Institution Henry Siegman Senior Fellow, Council on Foreign Relations, New York Richard E. Smalley Nobel Laureate (Chemistry, 1996) George Soros Chairman, Soros Fund Management LCC; Chairman, Open Society Institute John Sperling Chairman and CEO, Apollo Group, Inc. Eric Sterling President, Criminal Justice Policy Foundation, Washington, D.C. Robert S. Strauss Akin, Gump, Strauss, Hauer & Feld Eve Sullivan Founder, Parents' Forum Leon H. Sullivan Chairman, OIC of America Robert Sweet Federal Judge, New York, NY Hon. James W. Symington Attorney at Law David J. Theroux Founder/President, The Independent Institute Brooks Thomas Former Chairman and CEO Harper and Row, Publishers, Inc. John S. Toll Chancellor Emeritus, University of Maryland System; President, Washington College; Former President, Washington Academy of Sciences; Former President, Universities Research Association Arnold S. Trebach, J.D. , Ph.D. Professor Emeritus, American University; Founder, The Drug Policy Foundation Donald Trunkey MD, Chairman and Professor, Department of Surgery, Oregon Health Sciences University Richard Ullman Professor , Woodrow Wilson School, Princeton Universtiy J. Thomas Ungerleider, MD Professor Emeritus of Psychiatry, University of California, Los Angeles, Medical Center; Presidential Appointee (Nixon), National Commission on Marijuana and Drug Abuse Dr. Mark Vierra Assistant Professor of Surgery, Stanford University James Vorenberg Professor, Harvard Law School Faye Wattleton Former Executive Director, Planned Parenthood Andrew Weil Clinical Professor of Internal Medicine, University of Arizona College of Medicine; Author of "Spontaneous Healing" and "Natural Health, Natural Healing" Andrew Weiss Professor of Economics, Boston University Jann S. Wenner Chairman, Wenner Media, Inc. Cornel West Professor, Harvard University Sidney M. Wolfe, MD Public Citizen's Health Research Group Gavin Wright Professor of Economics, Stanford University Kevin B. Zeese President, Common Sense for Drug Policy George Zimmer Chairman/CEO, Men's Wearhouse Lynn Zimmer Associate Professor of Sociology, Queens College, City University of New York Franklin Zimring Professor of Law, UC Berkeley Jeffrey Zwiebel Associate Professor of Finance, Graduate School of Business, Stanford University UNITED KINGDOM Lord Rae House of Lords Austin N.E. Amissah Judge, London Rabbi Tony Bayfield Director, Sternberg Centre for Judaism Colin Blakemore Professor; Fellow of the Royal Society; President, British Association for the Advancement of Science Colin Brewer Medical Director, the Stapleford Centre Rabbi Sidney Brichto Senior Vice President of the Union of Liberal and Progressive Synagogues Peter P. Burnett Bodleian Library Alison Downie Chair of Release, Solicitor Edward Ellison Retired Detective Chief Superintendent Metropolitan Police, Operational Head of Scotland Yard Drug Squad Stephen Fineman Professor, University of Bath Paul Flynn Member of Parliament, House of Commons Mike Goodman Director Release Dr. Brian Iddon Member of Parliament, London Mike Jay Chairman, Drug Policy Review Group Nicholas Kurti Fellow of the Royal Society Danny Kushlick Director, Transform Reverend Dr. Kenneth Leech Founder of Soho Drugs Group, Founder of Centrepoint Robin Marris Professor Emeritus, London University Judi Marshall Professor, Bath University Austin Mitchell Member of Parliament, UK Edith Morgan Mental Health Consultant, Order of the British Empire Dr. Richard Newman Professor of History, University of Wales Swansea John Purcell Professor, School of Human Resource Management, University of Bath Lord Rae, MD House of Lords Anita Roddick, OBE Founder, The Body Shop Martin Short Author Nigel South Professor of Sociology, University of Essex Ian Sparks Chief Executive, The Children's Society Eleanor Stephens Senior Lecturer, Media Journalism, University of Sheffield Richard Stevenson Professor of Health Economy, Liverpool University Anthony Tibber Judge, London Carole Tongue Member of European Parliament Right Reverend Rowan Williams Bishop of Monmouth URUGUAY Mario Benedetti Writer VENEZUELA Simon Alberto Consalvi Former Minister of Foreign Affairs Diego Arria Ambassador; Former Representative of Venezuela to the United Nations and Security Council